History of Medicine (cont'd)
where medical students practiced on patients under the supervision of world-renowned physicians of the day.
The international university,
founded in 271 AD by Shahpour I, was a center of learning and study in the fields of science and medicine. The age-old school mentioned
by Ferdowsi (935-1020 AD) in his epic Shahnameh (Book of Kings) is still a center of knowledge near the ancient city of Susa in southwestern
The library of this university where scholars from many nations, such as Diogenes of Rome, studied consisted of 8 floors and 259 halls
containing an estimated 400,000 books. Upon its portal was engraved "knowledge and virtue are superior to sword and strength."
medicine, which combined medical traditions of Greece, Egypt, India and China for more than 4000 years, became the foundation of the
medical practice in European countries during the 13th century.
Among the torchbearers of ancient Persia's scientific heritage were
akaria Razi, Farabi, Omar Khayyam and Avicenna, who used their knowledge to make many great discoveries that benefit mankind to this
Razi, known to the West as Razes (865-925 AD), considered the father of pediatrics and a pioneer in neurosurgery and ophthalmology,
discovered and refined the use of ethanol in medicine.
Ruins of Ctesiphone Palace near Susa in Southwestern Iran
Farabi, known in the West as Alfarabius (872-951 AD), is noted for his contributions to psychology. He wrote the first treatises on
Avicenna (980-1037 AD), a prolific genius, introduced systematic experimentation into the study of physiology, experimental
medicine, evidence based medicine, clinical trials, risk factor analysis, the idea of a syndrome and contributed to clinical pharmacology
Avicenna (980-1037 AD) is considered the father of modern experimental medicine
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