History of Medicine (cont'd)
Many modern-day Iranian herbalists use reference books inherited from generations past, and still prescribe such plants as Borage,
Sweet Marjoram, Fenugreek and Chicory for use in treatment of their patients.
Ancient Persian physicians also believed that good health is a result of the 'right' measure of humor, and that sickness is often
the product of either excess or deficiency in this regard.
Vendidad, tells of three kinds of medicine practiced: medicine by
the knife (surgery), medicine by herbs, and medicine by divine words, which according to the sacred text, is the best form of the
In another ancient text, Ordibehesht Yasht, we learn about distinct classifiication of the physicians of the day into 5 categories
1) Health Inspectors who, like today, were tasked with preventing the spread of contagious diseases by quarantining, keeping the four
sacred elements of water, wind, earth and fire free from contamination, 2) Medical Examiner (modern-day pathologist/ coroners), 3)
Surgeons, 4) Herbalist and 5) Psychiatrists.
Avestan texts also tell of consultation among Surgeons, Herbalists and Psychiatrists which
indicates a form of medical association at the time.
Razes (865-925 AD) also known as Razi, by his patient's bedside
Razi (865-925 AD)
Farabi (872-951 AD)
Omar Khayyam (1048-1131 AD)
The first physician documented by Avestan texts was Vivangahan. Other notable physicians mentioned were Mani, Roozbeh, and Bozorgmehr.
for the establishment of hospital and training system must also be given to the ancient Persians, as they founded the first teaching
hospital in Jundishapur
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